AT-PBRN Research Initiatives

Since 2009, the AT-PBRN has supported numerous clinical research projects including:

  1. Four external grants totaling ~$375,000
  2. 10 peer-reviewed publications
  3. 36 peer-reviewed scientific abstracts

Interested in particicpating in clinical reserach via the AT-PBRN?  Contact us here!

We have created a diverse practice-based research network of athletic trainers in secondary schools, colleges, and clinics to engage in point-of-care research to determine the effectiveness of athletic training services, characterize athletic training practice, and evaluate the economic impact of athletic training services.

The Athletic Training PBRN has the potential to revolutionize clinical research within the athletic training profession.

Funded Grants

An evaluation of the prevalence and effectiveness of care provided by athletic trainers in a military population: a study from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network

  • Principal Investigator: Kara Radzak, PhD, ATC (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
  • Funding agency: NATA Foundation - New Investigator's Grant
  • Funding period: 2017-2018
  • Total Costs: $20,000


Do treatments provided at the point-of-care influence recurrent injury risk and long-term patient outcomes after acute lateral ankle sprain? A study from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network

  • Principal Ivestigators: Kenneth Lam, ScD, ATC (A.T. Still University) and Erik Wikstrom, PhD, ATC (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)
  • Funding agency: NATA Foundation - Outcomes Grant
  • Funding period: 2016-2019
  • Total Costs: $105,225

Health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes: a study from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network 

  • Principal Ivestigators: Alison Snyder Valier, PhD, ATC (A.T. Still University) and Tamara Valovich McLeod, PhD, ATC (A.T. Still University)
  • Funding agency: NATA Foundation - Outcomes Grant
  • Funding period: 2012-2013
  • Total Costs: $143,726

The Clinical Outcomes Research Education for Athletic Trainers (CORE-AT) Program: training clinical researchers for evidenced-based practice 

  • Principal Ivestigators: Alison Snyder Valier, PhD, ATC (A.T. Still University) and Tamara Valovich McLeod, PhD, ATC (A.T. Still University)
  • Funding agency: NATA Foundation 
  • Funding period: 2008-2009
  • Total Costs: $107,013

Peer-Reviewed Manuscripts

  1. Sauers EL, Valovich McLeod TC, Bay RC. Practice-based research networks, part I: clinical laboratories to generate and translate research findings into effective patient care. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012;47(5):549-56.
    Winner of the 2012 Journal of Athletic Training's Clint Thompson Award for Clinical Advancement. 
  2. Valovich McLeod TC, Lam KC, Bay RC, Sauers EL, Snyder AR. Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) Part II: A Descriptive Analysis of the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network in the Secondary School Setting. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012;47(5):557-66.
    Winner of the 2012 Journal of Athletic Training's Clint Thompson Award for Clinical Advancement 
  3. Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, Valovich McLeod TC.  Injury and treatment characteristics of patients under the care of athletic trainers: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Sports Health.  2015;7(1):67-74.
  4. Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, Anderson BE, Valovich McLeod TC.  Athletic training services provided during daily patient encounters: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2016;51(6):435-441.
  5. Nottingham SL, Lam KC, Kasamatsu TM, Eppelheimer BL, Welch Bacon CE. Reasons for and mechanics of documenting patient care among athletic trainers: a report for the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017; 52(7): 656-666.
  6. Welch Bacon CE, Eppelheimer BL, Kasamatsu TM, Lam KC, Nottingham SL. Perceptions of and barriers toward patient care documentation among athletic trainers: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017; 52(7): 667-675.
  7. Lam KC, Nelson CP, Huxel Bliven KC, Snyder Valier AR.  Evaluation and assessment patterns at the point-of-care for sport-related knee sprains: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Athletic Training and Sport Health Care. 2018; 10(2):69-75.
  8. Welch CE, Kasamatsu TM, Lam KC, Nottingham SL. Athletic trainers' strategies for patient care documentation: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2017; 52(7):667-675.
  9. Valovich McLeod TC, Kostishak N, Anderson BA, Welch Bacon CE, Lam KC.  Patient, Injury, Assessment, and Treatment Characteristics and Return-to-Play Timelines Following Sport-Related Concussion: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine.  [In press].
  10. Marshall AN, Kikugawa TM, Lam KC. Patient, treatment and cost characteristics associated with sport-related ankle sprains: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Athletic Training and Sports Health Care. [In press].

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Abstracts

  1. Lam KC, Marshall AN, Bay RC, Wikstrom EA.  Does injury history impact the recovery of self-report of function during the first two weeks after an ankle sprain injury? A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. National Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting; Las Vegas, NV; June 2019. [Accepted].
  2. Marshall AN, Lam KC.  A comparison of evaluation patterns of athletic trainers with International Ankle Consortium recommendations for the clinical assessment of lateral ankle sprain injuries: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  National Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting; Las Vegas, NV; June 2019. [Accepted].
  3. Radzak KN, Sefton JM, Timmons MK, Loop R, Stickley CD, Lam KC.  Patient and injury demographics of athletic training medical care for Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC): a Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  National Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting; Las Vegas, NV; June 2019. [Accepted].
  4. Jones KC, Marshall AN, Lam KC. Clinical evaluation of sport-related meniscal pathologies: a Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  National Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting; Las Vegas, NV; June 2019. [Accepted]. 
  5. Corbett RO, Marshall AN, Lam KC, Hertel J.  An evaluation of rehabilitation and goal achievement of athletes that have been returned to play following an ankle sprain: a Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  National Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting; Las Vegas, NV; June 2019. [Accepted].
  6. Lam KC, Marshall AN, Valovich McLeod TC.  Changes in health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes following a lower extremity injury: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Presented at the 23rd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science; Dublin, Ireland.  
  7. Lam KC, Marshall AN.  Cost and treatment characteristics for sport-related knee injuries managed by athletic trainers: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2018;53(6): S-46.  
  8. Marshall AN, Lam KC.  The management and estimated direct costs of care of ankle sprain injuries at the point-of-care: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2018;53(6): S-47.
  9. Sauers EL, Marshall AN, Lam KC.  A comparison of estimated direct costs of care provided by athletic trainers between mild and severe lower extremity disorders: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2018;53(6): S-46.  
  10. Richter SD, Marshall AN, Lam KC, Huxel Bliven KC.  Clinical evaluation of elbow injuries: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2018;53(6): S-107.  
  11. Lam KC, Bay RC.  Changes in health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes following an ankle sprain injury: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training.  2017;52(6): S-16.  
  12. Huxel Bliven KC, Lam KC, Williams RM, Snyder Valier AR.  Clinical evaluation findings of common shoulder conditions: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training.  2017;52(6): S-185-186.
  13. Hussey M, Huxel Bliven KC, Snyder Valier AR, Williams RM, Lam KC.  Clinical presentations at the point-of-care of common sport-related knee injuries: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training.  2017;52(6): S-225.
  14. Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, RC Bay.  Changes in self-report of impairments, function and disability following sport-related knee injuries: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2016;51(6): S-142.
  15. Nelson CP, Snyder Valier AR, Huxel Bliven KC, Lam KC.  Assessment patterns of athletic trainers who diagnose knee sprains: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2016;51(6): S-208.
  16. Huxel Bliven KC, Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR.  Orthopedic special tests used by athletic trainers in diagnosing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2016;51(6): S-213.
  17. Snyder Valier AR, Huxel Bliven KC, Lam KC.  Common orthopaedic special tests used for diagnosing ankle sprains in athletes: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2016;51(6): S-212.
  18. Gallegos DM, Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, Huxel Bliven KC.  Use of orthopedic special tests by athletic trainers who diagnose acromioclavicular sprains: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2016;51(6): S-207.
  19. Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, RC Bay. Patients experience significant and meaningful changes in self-report of function during the first two weeks after an ankle sprain: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-41.
  20. Bay RC, Lam KC, Snyder Valier AR, Valovich McLeod TC.  Confirmatory factor analysis of the Pediatric Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes: A report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-157.
  21. Sauers EL, Bay RC, Lam KC, Welch CE, Valovich McLeod TC, Snyder Valier AR.  Adolescent patient self-reported pain, function, and disability are moderated by participation status during the first five-days post-injury: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-155.
  22. Snyder Valier AR, Valovich McLeod TC, Lam KC, Sauers EL, Bay RC.  Concussed athletes report less pain, greater function, and less disability compared to athletes with musculoskeletal injury: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-116.
  23. Nottingham SL, Lam KC, Kasamatsu TM, Eppelheimer BL, Welch CE.  Reasons for and mechanics of documenting patient care among athletic trainers: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-71.
  24. Eppelheimer BL, Nottingham SL, Kasamatsu TM, Lam KC, Welch CE.  Perceptions of and barriers toward patient care documentation among secondary school athletic trainers: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6): S-71.
  25. Nottingham SL, Lam KC, Kasamatsu TM, Eppelheimer BL, Welch CE.  Reasons for and mechanics of documenting patient care among athletic trainers: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Far West Athletic Trainers' Association Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA; April 2015.
    *Peer-Reviewed Track Award Winner (1st place)
  26. Lam KC, Welch CE, Valovich McLeod TC. Treatment characteristics and estimated direct costs of care provided by athletic trainers for lower extremity injuries: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49(3): S-135.
  27. Fayson L, Snyder Valier AR, Valovich McLeod TC, Lam KC. The Impact of Sport and Sex on Sport-Related Injury Patterns: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49 (3-Supplement): S-134.
  28. Kostishak N, Lam KC, Anderson BA, Welch CE, Valovich McLeod TC. Treatment Characteristics and Return-To-Play Timelines Following Sport-Related Concussion: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49 (3-Supplement): S-13.
  29. Stobierski L, Snyder Valier AR, Lam KC, Anderson BE, Welch CE, Valovich McLeod TC. Athletic Training Services Provided During Daily Patient Encounters in the Secondary School Setting: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49 (3-Supplement): S-133.
  30. Valier AR, Bay RC, Welch CE, Valovich McLeod TC. Single-item measures of outcome improve over time in adolescent athletes suffering from sport-related musculoskeletal injury: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49 (3-Supplement): S-42.
  31. Welch CE, Valier AR, Bay RC, Sauers EL, Valovich McLeod TC. Physical, Psychosocial and Emotional Health of Adolescent Athletes Change as a Result of Sport-Related Injury and Recovery: A Report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014;49 (3-Supplement): S-33.
  32. Baker R, Anderson BA, Lam KC, Valovich McLeod TC. A descriptive analysis of clinical findings at discharge following sport-related concussion: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2013;48(3): S-193.
  33. Kostishak N, Anderson BA, Lam KC, Valovich McLeod TC. Patient, injury, and assessment characteristics of sport-related concussions at initial evaluation: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2013;48(3): S-13.
  34. Sauers EL, Bliven K, Lam KC.  Treatment characteristics and estimated direct costs of care provided by athletic trainers for upper extremity disorders: a report from the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network.  Journal of Athletic Training. 2013;48(3): S-99.
  35. Valovich McLeod TC, Lam KC, Bay RC, Sauers EL, Snyder AR. A Descriptive Analysis of the Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012;47(3 Suppl): S65.
  36. Valovich McLeod TC, Snyder AR, Lam KC, Bay RC, Sauers EL. A preliminary practice analysis of care provided within the Secondary School Athletic Training Practice-Based Research Network. Presented Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions. Scottsdale, Arizona, October 2011.